Glossary of Botanical and other terms

This Glossary of Botanical and other terms used throughout the Brickfields Country Park website is by no means exhaustive, it has been compiled from various data sources and is continually being updated.  If you can add to or amend any of the data on this page please contact at The Friends of Brickfields Country Park.

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AbdomenThe last of an insects three body divisions
AcaulaStem less
Achene, akene, achaeniumA small, dry carpel containing a single seed, the pericarp of which is closely applied but separable and which does not open when ripe.  Particularly fruits of the family Plumbaginaceae, perennial flowering plants with a cosmopolitan distribution, referred to as the Leadworts
Acid, acidicWith a pH lower than 7.0
AcmaAnvil shaped
ActinomorphicFlowers which are radially symmetrical, can be divided into 3 or more identical sectors
AcuminateTapering to a point
AdnateIn fungi, gills that are attached to the stem to the full depth of the gill without curving up or down
AdnexedIn fungi, gills that are only partially attached, where the inner edge curves up towards the cap, but do just join the stem
AerenchymaPlant tissue containing air spaces, found in many aquatic plants
AethaliaOne of the fruiting body structures of a slime mould, it contains numerous spores
Aerial rootletsSmall root–like structures found on some climbing vines
AestiveOf summer
AestivateSpend hot or dry periods in a prolonged state of torpor or dormancy
AgamicReproduction without the union of male and female cells, asexual or parthenogenetic
AlatesWinged reproductive individuals, either male or female
AlatusWinged parts
Albino, AlbinismTotal white colouration.  An organism with complete absence of melanin is an albino
AlkalineWith a pH higher than 7.0
Algae, algalSimple living organisms that grow by converting light energy through photosynthesis
AlateWinged reproductive form of ants, termites, aphids and some thrips.  Alate females are typically those destined to become queens
AlkaloidBitter tasting nitrogen based compound, usually poisonous, E.g. nicotine, cocaine
AlleleOne of a number of alternative forms of the same gene
AllelopathyThe ability to release chemicals which stop the growth of other plants
Alternate, alternifoliaLeaves or buds arranged alternately not in pairs or whorls along a twig
Amino acidOrganic compounds containing and amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) groups with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid
AmphibianCold–blooded animals that spend their lives in water and on land
AnaphylaxisA severe allergic reaction that can develop rapidly possibly life–threatening in some cases.  Also known as anaphylactic shock
AnemochoryThe dispersal of plant seeds or spores by the wind
AndroconialA wing or body scale that is modified for the dispersal of a sexual scent (pheromone)
AndrodioecyA breeding system in flowering plants consisting of male and hermaphroditic plants in a population.  See also gynodioecious
Anemophilous, AanemophilySeed plants pollinated by the wind
AngiospermCommon name for flowering plants.  The term refers to the fact that the seeds are enclosed within an ovary which matures into a fruit
AngustifoliaNarrow leafed, leaves
Annuua, annualOccurs every year, plants that flower every year.  See also Biennial
Ante–humeralRelating to the space just before origin of wings
AntennaeFeeler like appendages located on an insects head above their mouth parts
AnteriorNearer the front, in the front of the body, or nearer to the head or fore part.  See also posterior
AntherThe part of the stamen of a flower that holds the pollen
AnthesisThe opening of a flower ready for pollination
AntitranspirantA substance sprayed onto plants to reduce the rate of transpiration
ApicalComing from the growing tip of a stem or body.  The outer wingtip area of a Butterfly or moth.  See Subapical
AphidA small insect which feeds by sucking sap from plants, commonly Blackfly or Greenfly
AphidophagousFeeding on aphids
ApothecaryAn old term for a person who formulates and dispenses medicine to physicians, surgeons, and patients.  The modern term is chemist, or pharmacist in American English
ApotheciaA disk shaped or cup shaped ascocarp of some lichens
AppressedFlatly pressed back, a leaf that lies flat against the stem or a plant that lies pressed against the ground.  Pressed closely against, but not joined to, a surface
ApteraeWingless form of an insect usually referring to parthenogenetic female aphids
AquaticAssociated with water, living or growing in water
ArborescentBranching growth, like a tree
ArchaeophyteA non–native plant species to a geographic region, but introduced before the year 1500.  See also neophyte
Areole, AreolateHaving a pattern of block–like areas similar to cracked dried mud
ArilAn extra sometimes coloured coating or covering on a seed
ArthropodsAn invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton, a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages
Arvense, ArvensisA weed found in cultivated fields
AsexualA mode of reproduction where offspring arise from a single parent, the offspring will be exact genetic copies of the parent.  The primary form of reproduction for single–celled organisms such as Archaea, bacteria, and protists, many plants and fungi reproduce asexually
AsperaRough leaved
AscocarpThe fruit of certain lichens and fungi, usually a saucer–shaped or cup–shaped body, the inner surface of which is covered with a layer that bears spores
AugustaStately or noble
Aurea, AureoLatin female name meaning Golden or yellow
Auricle, AuriculaWith ears or lobes
AutumnaleFlowers in the autumn
AwnA slender bristle like appendage found on the spikelets of many grasses
AxilThe angle formed between a leaf stalk and the stem to which it is attached.  In flowering plants, buds develop in the axils of leaves
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BacillarusStaff like
Bacteria, bacteriumProkaryotic single cell organisms
BarbelA whisker like sensory organ near or on the mouth of fish and turtles.  Barbels are used to search for food in murky water.
BarbinervaWith vein
BarkThe outermost cell layers on stems, branches, twigs, and roots, formed by the cambium cells.  The bark of trees usually has two layers, the outer and the inner, more or less distinct in structure, texture, colour, etc
BasalLocated at the base, the term often describes leaves of wild flowers
BelladonnaBeautiful lady
BerryA fleshy fruit that contains small seeds
Biennis, biennialLasting for or occurring every two years, in particular, it can refer to plant which blooms in its second year, see also Annual
BifidSplit into two parts.  See also trifid
BilobateDivided into or having two lobes
BineA climbing plant which climbs by growing in a helix around a support.  See also Vine
BinomialTwo names
BioluminescenceLight produced by a chemical reaction within a living organism
BiotrophFeeds on the living cells of a host plant over an extended period without killing it
BipinnateFrom pinnate, an arrangement of feather–like or divided features arising from both sides of a common axis, in this case sub–divided twice
BivoltineOften in insects referring to organisms having two broods or generations per year.  See also Univoltine
BladeA broad and flattened region of a plant or alga, allowing for an increase in photosynthesis from the increased surface area
BombycinaSilky or furry
BorealA subarctic climate in the Northern hemisphere, approximately between latitude 45° to 65°N, also known as the Taiga, particularly in Europe and Asia
BotanicalA substance obtained from a plants
Bract, bracteata, bracteolesA structure occurring beneath a flower or fruit or their clusters, can be leaf–like, petal–like, or woody
BroadleafA tree or plant with wide flat leaves and produces seeds inside of fruits.  Also see conifer
BudAn incipient shoot bearing embryonic leaves, flowers or both
BulbousGrowing from a bulb or resembling a bulb in shape
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CaeruleaDark blue, dark coloured, azure
CalyxSepals of a flower considered as a group, a cup like structure or organ
CambiumA layer of actively dividing cells, found within stems and roots, that gives rise to secondary growth causing an increase in diameter
CampanulataBell shaped
CampesteGrowing in or associated with fields
CanadenseCanadian in origin
CandidaPure, shining white
CapThe rounded, flat, or convex top of a mushroom
Capitata, CapitulaA compact or compact head of a structure, usually a flat cluster of small flowers or florets, as in plants of the daisy family
CapitulumDensely clustered inflorescence containing a large number of individual florets arising from a platform like base
CapsuleA dry fruit that partially splits open at maturity
CarneaFlesh coloured
CarrionThe decaying flesh of dead animals including humans
Carnivore, CarnivorousAn organism that derives energy and nutrient from animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging
CarotenoidsCarotenoids are organic pigments that are found in the chloroplasts and chromoplasts of plants and some other photosynthetic organisms, including some bacteria and some fungi
CarpelA part of the pistil, a modified leaf
CaterpillarsLarval form of members of the order Lepidoptera.  They are mostly herbivorous in habit, although some species are insectivorous
CatkinA cylindrical cluster of tiny flowers or fruits, usually fuzzy and caterpillar–shaped, drooping
CaudataWith a tail
CaudexAxis of a woody plant especially a palm or tree fern, comprising the stem and root.  In some plants it can become extremely swollen
CaulescentWith an obvious stem, usually above ground
Caulis, CaulineRefers to the stem, especially of leaves arising from the upper part of a stem
Cell wallAny tough layer which surrounds a cell and its cell membrane.  In plants, this wall is composed of cellulose
CephalothoraxThe anterior part of the body in certain arachnids and crustaceans, consisting of the coalesced head and thorax
CerciPaired appendages on the rear–most segments of many arthropods (singular cercus)
ChelateA chemical that contains a metallic element in a form that plants can use
ChinensisChinese in origin
ChlorophyllPhotosynthetic pigment.  It includes a magnesium atom surrounded by a porphyrin ring, and often has a long hydrophobic tail
ChloroplastsChloroplasts are organelles, specialized sub–units, in plant and algal cells, their main role is to conduct photosynthesis
Chlorotic, chlorosisPale or yellowish leaves usually caused by a lack of nitrogen, iron, or magnesium
ChromoplastChromoplasts are heterogeneous organelles responsible for pigment synthesis and storage in specific photosynthetic eukaryotes
ChromosomeThread–like structures located inside the nucleus of animal and plant cells.  Each chromosome is made of protein and a single molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
ChrysalisA developmental stage of a butterfly or moth between a Larva and an adult.  Also the name of the hard protective covering that they have at this stage
ChrysogonumGreen and gold in colour
CircumpolarA distribution range that occurs over a wide range of longitudes but only at high latitudes.  E.g. all around the North or the South Poles
Cilia, CiliumSlender protuberances that project from a much larger cell body
CiliataFringed with hairs
CinereaAsh coloured or grey
CitriodaLemon scented
CladeA group of organisms believed to comprise all the evolutionary descendants of a common ancestor
CnidarianA phylum of aquatic animals that have tentacles with stinging cells in their tips, they include anemones, hydroids, jellyfish, corals
CoccineaScarlet, from the Latin word meaning “deep red”
CocoonA casing spun of silk by many moth caterpillars and numerous other insect larvae as a protective covering for the developing pupa
CompactaGrowing smaller than average
Compound eyeAn eye consisting of many elements, common in insects and crustaceans, where each element is a tiny photoreceptor consisting of a cornea, lens, and photo cells which distinguish brightness and color.  The eye as a whole is visible as many hexagonal facets
Compound leafA leaf divided into leaflets, with the general appearance of a leaf
ConeA dense and conical mass of flowers or fruits, or of seed–bearing scales, on a central axis
Conifer, ConiferousNeedle or scale leaved, mostly evergreen, cone–bearing gymnospermous trees or shrubs of the order Coniferales, such as pines, spruces, and firs.  Trees or shrubs bearing cones and evergreen leaves
Cordatus, cordifolia, cordateHeart shaped, with a point at the apex and a notch at the base
CormA swollen underground part of a plants stem that serves for storage, used by some plants to survive winter or other adverse conditions such as summer drought and heat (estivation)
CorniclesSee siphunculi
CornutaWith spines or horned
CorticatedBeing covered, the outer part of a plant or body organ, or a layer of tissue in certain simple structured plants and animals
CorollaAll the petals of a flower make up the corolla
CoronaA crown like structure on some corollas E.g. daffodils
CorymbA type of inflorescence
Costa, costalA rib or rib like structure or item
CotyledonA food storage organ in seeds serve to absorb nutrients packaged in the seed.  First “green” visible leaf/s of a seedling are cotyledons providing food until the seedling is able to produce its first true leaves and begin photosynthesis
CrassifoliaFleshy leaved
CrenateHaving a margin with low, rounded or scalloped projections.  See serrulate, and dentate and toothed
CrenulateMinutely scalloped
CrispulaWavy margined
CristataCrested, having a comb or tuft, plumed, tufted
CrustaceanA large and diverse arthropod taxon including crabs, lobsters, crayfish, woodlice and shrimps
CrustoseGrowth of an organism where it grows tightly bound to a substrate forming a biological layer of the adhering organism
CulmA stem, especially of grasses, that is usually hollow except at the nodes
CupuleThe cup surrounding developing nuts (e.g., the cap of an acorn)
CultivarA plant variety produced from propagation or inbred seed, usually the result of hybridization.  A cultivar name is indicated by a Roman (not Latin) word or words enclosed in single quotation marks
CultriformisKnife shaped
CuticleWaxy surface that reduces water loss from a leaf or item by “sealing” the outer surfaces
CyclopticHaving a single eye.  See also Dichoptic, Holoptic
CymesA type of inflorescence
Cypsela, cypselaeFruits of the Asteraceae family
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DeciduousA process where the leaves of a plant fall off seasonally to conserve energy, usually in the autumn.  See also Evergreen
DecoctionMethod of extraction by boiling of dissolved chemicals, herbal or plant material.  Tea is a decoction
DecumbentIn plants, lying along the ground or along a surface, with the extremities curving upwards
DecurrentIn fungi – extending down the stem below the point of attachment, becoming vase shaped
DecussateTo intersect or to cross.  Intersected or crossing in the form of an X, arranged in pairs along a stem, each pair at a right angle to the one above or below
Dehiscent, dehiscedSplitting along a built–in line of weakness in a plant structure in order to release its contents
Deliquesce, deliquescenceIn fungi, a process by which the fungus liquefies or auto–digests with its own enzymes, usually in around 24 hours
DentateHaving toothed leaves.  See serrulate, and crenate and toothed
DenticulateFinely toothed
DeterminateA term used to describe a plant whose growth is stopped by the production of flowers and fruit.  See also Indeterminate
DetritivoreDetritivores, detritophages or detritus feeders, organisms that obtain nutrients by consuming detritus
DetritusDecomposing plant and animal parts as well as organic fecal matter
DiapauseA period of suspended development in an invertebrate or mammal embryo, especially during unfavourable environmental conditions
DichopticViewing a separate and independent field by each eye.  See also Cycloptic, Holoptic
DicotSeedlings with two cotyledon, two seed leaves.  See also Monocot
DicotyledonA plant with two cotyledons in its seed, includes all the broad leaved trees
DimorphicOccurring in or representing two distinct forms.  E.G. Sexually dimorphic, where males and females are marked differently or of a differing size
Dioecious, dioicamale and female flowers on separate plants
DiploidA cell or organism that has paired chromosomes, one from each parent. See also Heterozygous, Homozygous and Tetraploid
DistalAway from the centre of the body or from the point of attachment
DiureticAny substance that promotes the production of urine
DiurnalThe behavior of animals and plants that are active in the daytime
Discal (spot)An transverse area of differing coloured cells in the discal area (roughly central) of the forewing in Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths).  Also known as an Ocellus
DivaricataStraggly, sprawling, or spreading
DorsalRefers to the back of an animal or human being
DorsumFor moths, the trailing edge of the forewing, in caterpillars, it's back or top surface
Double–toothedA leaf edge on which each tooth bears smaller teeth
DrupeA fleshy fruit with a stone–like pit E.g. blackberries
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EcloseFor insects – emerging as an adult from the pupa, or as a larva from an egg
EchinateBearing stiff prickly hairs
Elytra, ElytronHard outer wings of a beetle or other insect, wing covers
EmbryoThe first developmental stage of an insect, see also Larva, Pupa and Imago
EndodermisThe layer of cells which surrounds the central core of vascular tissue, helps to regulate the flow of water and dissolved substances
EndohydricWater intake up a stem through rudimentary vascular tissue
EndoparasitoidA parasite that lives inside another animal and ultimately kills it
EnsataSword shaped
EntireSmooth edged, not toothed
The outermost layer of cells or “skin” of a plant, covering the leaves, stem, and roots
EpiphytePlant which grows on another plant using it for structural support, or as a way to get off the ground and into the canopy environment.  E.g. Ivy
EricoidesOf the heath
EsophagusA tube connecting the throat to the stomach
EtoliatedA plant grown in too little light, leaves and stems shrivel and it becomes stunted
EukaryotesAny organism whose cells contain a nucleus and other organelles enclosed within membranes
EutrophicRich in nutrients
EvergreenIn botany, plants that have leaves throughout the year, E.g. firs and conifers.  See also Deciduous
ExoskeletonThe external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body, in contrast to the internal skeleton of vertebrates
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Fan compoundCompound leaf where leaflets are arranged in the shape of a fan
Fascia, FasciaeConnective tissue, E.g. the wing scales on moths and butterflies
FasciationAbnormal widening and flattening of a stem, typically of a flower stalk
Fastigiatetree or shrub having the branches more or less parallel to the main stem
FeltedCovered with short, dense hairs
FemoraThe third segment of the leg in insects and some other arthropods, typically the longest and thickest segment
FenestraWindow like
FiberElongated and thickened cells found in xylem tissue, strengthens and supports the surrounding cells
FiddleheadAn unfurled frond or rolled fern leaf growth, so called because of its resemblance to the scrolled head of a violin
FilamentosaHas filaments or threads
FiliformLong and thin threadlike
FloraRefers to the flowers
Flore, plenoDouble flowers
FloretA small or reduced flower, especially grasses and composite plants E.G. Daisy
Floribunda, floridaPlants that flower abundantly
FlowerReproductive structures found in flowering plants
Foetid, FoetidusBad or unpleasant smelling
FoliageRefers to the leaves of plants
FolioseGrowth of an organism where it is not tightly bound to a substrate so forming a growth vaguely similar to “foliage” or “leaves”
FoliusAs part of a species name, refers to the leaves of plants
Forb, phorbAn herbaceous flowering plant that is not a grass, sedge, or rush which are graminoids, but is usually found as a grassland species
FragransFragrant or sweet scented
FrondA leaf of a fern or palm
FruitIn flowering plants, the structure which enclose the seeds, true fruits develop from the ovary wall
Frutescens, fruticans, fruticosus, fruticoseShrubby or bushy
Fulgens, fulgidaShining or glistening
FulvaTawny coloured
Fungus, fungiA fungus is any member of a large group of eukaryotic organisms that includes yeasts and moulds as well as the more familiar mushrooms
FurrowedMarked with longitudinal grooves
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GaleobdolaNettle like
GallAbnormal outgrowth of a plants tissues caused by various parasites, fungi, bacteria, insects
GastropodFrom the Greek meaning "stomach foot".  A large group of mollusc usually referred to as snails.  They have a muscular foot, eyes, tentacles and a special rasp-like feeding organ (radula)
GeneA gene is a molecule composed of a sequence of DNA or RNA which codes the molecules function
Genotype, GenotypicalAn organisms genetic makeup
Germinate, germinationThe process by which plants, fungi and bacteria emerge from seeds and spores, and begin growth
Genus, generaThe next major category of plant classification above species, plural form
GeotropismThe movement of plant parts in response to gravity, stems grow up roots grow down
GillIn mushrooms, the spore containing organs, in fish the breathing organs
Glaber, glabraSmooth or hairless
GlabrousNo hairs or fuzz, hairless
GlaucousLeaves or other parts with a grey, blue, or white waxy coating or bloom that is easily brushed off
Globose, globularSpherical
GlumeA basal membranous outer sterile husk or bract in the flowers of grasses and sedges
GlutinosaSticky, full of or smeared with glue, viscous, glutinous
GlycosideA toxin where a sugar molecule is linked with oxygen to another compound, often nitrogen–based.  Harmful when the sugar molecule is stripped off, usually through digestion
GracilisGraceful or slender
Graft, graftingA propagation technique that vegetatively joins two plants into one.  Grafted plants use the roots and the bottom portion of one plant (rootstock) and attach it to a tender shoot (scion) from the top portion of another plant
GraminoidAn herbaceous plant with a grass–like morphology i.e. long, blade–like leaves. They are contrasted to forbs, herbaceous plants without grass–like features
GraveolaHeavy scented
GregariousAnimals - living in flocks or loosely organized communities.  Plants - growing in open clusters or pure associations.
GuttataSpotted, from Latin meaning drop or drop like
Gymnosperm, GymnospermousGenerally any seed plant which does not produce flowers.  A vascular plant, such as a cycad or conifer, whose seeds are not enclosed within an ovary
GynostemiumThe central reproductive stalk of an orchid consisting of a stamens and pistil fused together
GynodioeciousA breeding system in flowering plants where female and hermaphroditic plants coexist within a population.  See also Androdioecy
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HabitThe general growth pattern of a plant.  A plants habit may be described as creeping prostrate, climbing, trees, shrubs, vines, etc
HalophyteAble to tolerate a large amount of salt in the soil
HalteresSmall knobbed structures modified from the rear wings in some two–winged insects.  They function as gyroscopes providing a feedback pathway informing the insect about rotation of the body during flight
HardwoodWood of a broad leaved tree E.g. Oak, Ash, or Beech as opposed to that of softwood E.g. conifers
HaustoriumThe portion of a parasitic fungus or plant that penetrates a hosts tissue and draws nutrients from it
Heliotrope, HeliotropicDiurnal motion of plants or their parts in response to the direction of the sun
HerbGenerally any plant which does not produce wood, and is therefore not as large as a tree or shrub, is considered to be a herb
HerbaceousGreen and leaf like in appearance and texture, above ground stems that are fleshy
Herbivore, herbivorousOrganisms that are anatomically and physiologically adapted to eat plant–based foods
Hermaphrodite, hermaphroditicHaving both male and female parts
HeterostylousA unique form of polymorphism where several morphological types of flowers exist in the population where the morphs differ in the lengths of the pistil and stamens.  On each plant, all flowers share the same morph, the pollen from a flower of one morph cannot fertilize another flower of the same morph
HeterogeneousDiverse in character or content, composed of parts of different kinds, having widely dissimilar elements or constituents
HeterozygousIn diploid organisms, one allele is inherited from the male parent and one from the female parent.  Heterozygous inherit differing DNA sequences
HibernateA state of regulated hypothermia, that allows animals to conserve energy during the winter
HilumThe scar on a seed coat marking the place where it was attached to the ovary during development
Hirsutus, HirtaCovered with stiff bristly hairs
HolarcticAn aggregation of two of the eight ecozones of the Earth's surface.  It includes the Nearctic and Palaearctic regions, basically the Northern hemisphere
HolopticParticularly in the eyes of various species of insects holoptic eyes meet along the median dorsal line of the head.  See also Cycloptic, Dichoptic
HomozygousIn diploid organisms, one allele is inherited from the male parent and one from the female parent.  Homozygous inherit identical DNA sequences
HuskOutermost covering of a fruit, usually quite thick or heavy
HybridAlso known as cross breed.  Mixing through sexual reproduction of two animals or plants of different breeds, varieties, species or genera
HydrophobicLiterally “water–fearing” describes the segregation and apparent repulsion between water and non–polar substances
HygrometricaMeasuring moisture
HygrophanousIn fungi refers to the colour change of the fungi's tissue as it loses or absorbs water, causing it to become more transparent when wet and opaque when dry
Hypha, hyphaeA long, branching filamentous structure of a fungus, they are the main mode of vegetative growth, collectively called mycelium
HypothermiaThe condition of having an abnormally or dangerously low body temperature
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IndehiscentIn fruit, not opening in any defined manner when mature usually referring to fruit.  See also dehiscent
ImagoThe last developmental stage of an insect often referred to as the adult stage.  See also Embryo, Larva and Pupa
IncanaHoary or greyish–white, grey
IndeterminatePlants which continue to grow after flowering starts.  See also Determinate
IndicusFrom India
IndumentumThe coating of fine hairs on the underside leaves
InflorescenceA cluster of flowers arranged in a particular way on a stem
InfundibularFunnel shaped
InorganicA compound that is not organic.  In simple terms compounds that do not contain carbon, and not consisting of or being from from living matter
InsectaryPlants intentionally introduced into an ecosystem to increase pollen and nectar resources for beneficial insects which assists in pollination of other plant species in the localised area
Insectivore, InsectivorousOrganisms that are anatomically and physiologically adapted to eat insects
InstarDenotes each developmental stage of an insect
IntegumentThe coating of an ovule that becomes the skin of a seed
InvertebrateAnimal species that do not develop a spine or vertebral column. See also exoskeleton and vertebrate
Involucral, involucreIn flowering plants – a ring of bracts around an inflorescence.  In Fagaceae – a term sometimes misused for the cupule surrounding developing nuts (e.g., the cap of an acorn)
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JaponicusOf or relating to Japan, Japanese in origin
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KoreanusOf or relating to Korea, Korean in origin
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LabiateWith flower parts arranged into two lips
Lact, LactariusMilky, containing a white or milky juice when cut or broken
LaminaAny broad and flattened region of a plant or alga, which allows for increased photosynthetic surface area
LanceolateLance shaped leaves (or petals?) much longer than wide, pointed tip and broad based
Larva, larvae, larvalJuvenile form that many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults E.g. insects, amphibians, or cnidarians, larva is Latin for “ghost”
LatifoliaBroader than average leaves
LatitudeA geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.  See also Longitude
LayeringA method of plant propagation where a portion of a plants stem grows roots when it touches the ground but whilst still attached to the parent plant, it then detaches and becomes an independent plant
LeafFound in most vascular plants, consisting of a flat lamina (blade) and a petiole (stalk)
LeafletA leaf–like subdivision of a compound leaf to individual blades
Legume, leguminousA plant in the family Fabaceae or Leguminosae (Peas and Beans).  A seed capsule formed from one carpel that typically splits along two sides when mature.  See also Silique
LemmaThe outer two bracts that enclose the flower in a grass spikelet
LenticelA corky spot on tree or shrub bark, usually circular that originated as a breathing pore
LepidopteranA member of the order Lepidoptera, species of butterflies, moths, and skippers
Leucism, Leucisticpartial loss of pigmentation in an animal causing white, pale, or patchy coloration of the skin, hair, feathers, scales, or cuticles, but not the eyes
LeucensBright, shining, or clear
LichenA lichen is a composite organism that arises from usually an algae or cyanobacteria that lives among filaments of a fungus in a symbiotic relationship. Lichens come in many colours, sizes, and forms
LigninIs an organic substance binding the cells, fibres and vessels which constitute wood and other plants, as in straw.  Lignin plays a crucial part in conducting water in plant stems
Ligule, ligulateA thin membrane attached to a leaf of grass at the point where the blade meets the leaf sheath, or a strap–shaped corolla, such as that of a ray floret in plants in the daisy family
LoamA fine rich fertile soil of clay and sand containing humus.  A soil with roughly equal proportions of sand, silt, and clay
Lobe, Lobed, lobataLeaves or flower petals that are divided into incompletely separated, rounded or bristle–tipped sections.  Part of a leaf, often rounded, formed by incisions from the edge towards the midrib
LobuleA small lobe or subdivision of a lobe
LoessSoils deposited by the winds
LongitudeA geographic coordinate that specifies the east–west position of a point on the Earth's surface.  See also Latitude
LucidusBright, shining, or clear
Lute, luteaYellow
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MacrophyllaLarge leaves
MacropterousHaving long or large wings or fins
MajalisFlowering in May
MannoxylicWood in which there is a great deal of parenchyma tissue among the xylem is called mannoxylic.  Cycads and pteridosperms have mannoxylic wood.  Contrast with pycnoxylic
MargaritaceaPear like
MarginalThe outer edge of a butterfly or moths wing, after the postdiscal area
MedullaThe internal tissue of a plant
MeiosisA specialized type of cell division which reduces the chromosome number by half occurring in all sexually reproducing eukaryotes, including animals, plants, and fungi
MelaninA dark brown to black pigment occurring in the hair, skin, and iris of the eye in animals including humans.  Responsible for tanning of skin when exposed to sunlight
Melanism, Melanistic, MelanosisThe occurrence of an increased amount of dark pigmentation (skin, feathers, eyes, hair) in an organism
MelanocarpaBlack fruit
MeridionalisFlowering at mid day
mesophyllthe inner tissue (parenchyma) of a leaf, containing the chloroplasts
Metamorphose, metamorphosisA biological process in which an animal physically develops after birth or hatching, involving a conspicuous and relatively abrupt change in the animal's body structure through cell growth and differentiation
Microlepidoptera, micro–mothAn artificial (unranked) grouping of moth families, generally having wingspans of under 20mm
MiddenIs an old dump for domestic waste which may consist of artifacts and ecofacts associated with past human occupation.  The toilet area of an animal
Migrate, migratoryFor birds or animals denotes a species that migrates (travels) to a different place, usually when the season changes
MineralA mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound of a specific composition usually in a crystalline form
Moleculea group of atoms bonded together, representing the smallest fundamental unit of a chemical compound
MollisSoftly hairy, also pliant, flexible, easily moved, gentle
MolluscAn animal such as a snail, clam, or octopus which has a soft body, many species have hard shells to provide protection
MonocarpicA plant that flowers only once in its life and then dies
MonocotSeedlings with one cotyledon, having one seed leaf.  See also Dicot
MonoeciousSeparate male and female flowers on the same plant
MonogynousSpecies where a colony have a single queen, I.e. ants
MonotypicConsisting of only one type of animal or plant, an invasive to the detriment of existing inhabitants
MontanaFound in or of mountainous areas
Morphology, MorphologicalThe study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features
MoschataMusk scented
MutabilisFlowers that change colour
MyiasisAn infestation of the skin by developing larvae (maggots) of several fly species
MyceliumThe vegetative part of a fungus consisting of a mass of branching thread–like hyphae
MycorrhizalSymbiotic association between a fungus and the roots of a vascular host plant
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Nana, nanusDwarf, miniature, small
NapellaResembling a small turnip
NaturaliseTo allow or establish a plant or animal so that it is able to live wild in a region where it is not indigenous
NearcticOne of the eight ecozones of the Earth's surface.  It includes the ecoregions of Greenland, Canada, the United States and parts of Mexico.  See also Palaearctic and Holarctic
NecrosisSmall patches or areas of plant tissue that have died because of disease or freezing
NectarA sugar rich liquid produced by plants either to attract pollinators or as a nutrient source to animal mutualists who in turn provide protection.  The main sugar source for honey
NemerosaOf woods
NocturnalActive during the night.  See also diurnal
NeophyteA non–native plant species to a geographic region, but introduced after the year 1500.  See also Archaeophyte
NeotenyIs the retention of juvenile characteristics in adults of a species, similar to but not the same as progenesis
NigraBlack or very dark green
NipponicusJapanese in origin
NivSnow or a snow white colour
NodeThe region of a stem between two internodes, where there is branching of the vascular tissue into leaves or other appendages
NuciferaNut bearing
Nucleus, nucleiIn biology – a specialized structure occurring in most cells (except bacteria and blue–green algae) separated from the rest of the cell by a double layer called the nuclear membrane
NudifloraFlowering naked, flowers before or after the leaves have appeared
NutaNodding, flowers as pendant or drooping clusters
NymphThe immature form of some invertebrates, particularly insects
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ObovateEgg shaped and flat, with the narrow end attached to the stalk
OblanceolateWith plant leaves lanceolate have the more pointed end at the base
OcellusAn eye shaped marking in the form of a spot or ring of colour, E.g. on the wing of a butterfly or moth (Lepidoptera)
Odora, odorataFragrant, perfumed
OfficinalisA plant that was sold as an herb or used by an apothecary
OmnivorousEating both animal and vegetable foods
OperculumA secreted plate that closes the opening of some snails shell when the animal is retracted
OppositeLeaf or bud arrangement where leaves and buds are arranged in opposing pairs along a twig or plant stem
OrbicularShaped like a flat ring or disc
OrganCollection of tissues which perform a particular function or set of functions in a plants body.  The leaf, stem, and root are plant organs
OrganelleA specialized sub–unit within a cell that has a specific function
OrganicOf or relating to an organism, a living entity
OvateOval–shaped leaves, petals, or sepals
OvaryThe part of a flower which encloses the ovules, after pollination it matures to becomes a fruit
OvipositorAn ovipositor is an organ used by some animals, mainly insects, for the laying of eggs, consisting of up to of three pairs of appendages formed to transport the egg, prepare a place for it, and to place it properly
OvuleIn seed plants, the structure which gives rise to the seed
Oxide, oxidisingProcess of a material's decomposition when exposed to an oxidising agent (oxidiser).  The decomposition of steel to form rust, or copper to form verdigris (a green powdery surface) are commonly seen oxidising processes for a material on exposure to Oxygen
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PalaearcticOne of the eight ecozones of the Earth's surface and by far the largest.  It includes the ecoregions of Europe, Asia north of the Himalayan foothills, northern Africa, and the northern and central parts of the Arabian Peninsula.  See also Nearctic and Holarctic
Palmate, PalmataLeaves shaped like a hand
Palp, palpusAn elongated, often segmented appendage usually found near the mouth in invertebrate organisms, the functions of which include sensation, locomotion, and feeding
PalustrisFound in swamps or marshes
Panicle, PaniclesCluster of flowers or inflorescences where the flowers are borne on stalks that branch off larger stalks
PaniculataBearing flowers in panicles
PannosaFelt like appearance
Parasite, parasitised, parasitism, parasitoidA non–mutual relationship between organisms of different species where one organism, the parasite, benefits at the expense of the other, the host
Pareidoliaa tendency for an observer to make an incorrect perception of an object, pattern or meaning, such as shapes in clouds, faces in objects or patterns, hidden messages in music
Parthenogenetic, ParthenogenesisA reproductive process whereby eggs develop without undergoing fertilisation
PappusA feathery down terminating each seed
PapillaeA small fleshy projection on a plant, a small rounded protuberance on a part or organ of the body
ParenchymaThe bulk of a substance.  In animals it comprises the functional parts of an organ and in plants it is the ground tissue of non–woody structures
PasserineOf the order Passeriformes (perching birds), a notable feature is the arrangement of their toes, three pointing forward and one back, which facilitates perching
ParviAs part of a species name, small
Patens, patulusSpreading
PaviaFlesh coloured
PectinataComb like
PectoralThe fins on the sides of the body of a fish
PedicelThe stalk attaching an individual flower in an inflorescence
PeduncleThe supporting stalk, stem or branch of an inflorescence
PelageA mammals coat, composed of fur and/or guard hairs
PeltateStalk of a flower is attached somewhere other than the margin of the leaf
PendulousHanging down loosely or swinging freely, clusters of flowers or fruits that droop or hang down
PericarpThe part of a fruit enclosing the seeds that develop from the wall of the ovary
Perennial, PerennisA plant which continues to grow after it has reproduced, living for usually more than one year
PerfoliateLeaf arrangement of plants such as honeysuckle, where two opposing leaves are fused and appear to be pierced by the stem or branch
PerianthAll the sepals and petals of a flower make up the perianth, literally “around the anthers”
PeridiumFruiting body or spore sac of a fungi
PetalOne of a circle of modified leaves immediately outside the reproductive organs of a flower, usually brightly coloured, located between the outer sepals and the stamens
PetraeaGrowing on rocks, of rocky places, hillsides
Petiole, petiolateThe stalk supporting a leaf
PhorbSee Forb
Phenotype, PhenotypicalAny observable characteristic or trait of an organism, the result from the expression of an organisms genes as well as the influence of environmental factors
PheromoneA secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same species
PhloemNutrient conducting tissue of vascular plants
PhyllaryAn individual bract within an involucre
PhotosynthesisA biochemical process where light energy is absorbed by chlorophyll the green pigment of most plants, a process that produces molecular sugar which the plant used as “food”
PhotoxinA chemical substance which make the skin very sensitive to the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight
PhylumThe first level in the plant kingdom, after phylum come class, order, family, genus, and species
PhytoplanktonPhoto–synthesizing microscopic organisms inhabiting the upper layer of oceans and fresh water bodies.  Also called micro–algae
PhytoremediationA process that uses various types of plants to remove, transfer, stabilize or destroy contaminants in the soil and groundwater
PictaPainted, coloured, decorated
PileusThe top, or cap
pinaculaFlattened sclerotized plates on a caterpillar that bear the setae
pinnaeA primary division of a pinnate leaf, especially of a fern
Pinnate, Pinnated, Pinnately compoundLeaves which are divided up like a feather.  An arrangement of feather–like or divided features arising from both sides of a common axis
PinnatifidPinnately divided, but not all the way down to the central axis
PinguifoliaFat or fleshy leaves
PisiferaBearing pea like seeds
PistilThe central set of female reproductive organs in a flower composed of one or more carpels
PithAny central region of parenchyma tissue within a plant stem
PitsThin regions of the cell wall in xylem conducting cells, an important characteristic for recognizing different kinds of wood
Plasmodium, plasmodialA living structure that contains many nuclei rather than being divided into individual cells each with a single nucleus.  Best known from slime moulds, but are also found in some parasites and algae
PlatyspermicHaving seeds which are flattened and disc–like.  Contrast with radiospermic
PleometrosisColonies started by more than one Queen, E.G. Ants
PlicateFolded like a paper fan, E.g. the leaves of palms, cyclanthoids, and some orchids
PluviaOf rain, flowers after the rain
PleurocarpousMainly horizontal trailing stems and lateral reproductive parts
PodA dryish fruit of some plants, containing one or more seeds and usually flattened, splitting down one or both sides
PollardA pruning system where the upper branches of a tree are removed, promoting a dense head of foliage and branches commonly used to maintain trees at a predetermined height, also for fodder to feed livestock, or for wood particularly for fence rails and posts
PollenA granular or powdery substance produced by an anther, which is then transferred to a stigmatic surface of the same or another flower to produce fertilisation.  Collected by Bees who then turn it into honey
PolliniaA mass of fused pollen produced by many orchids
PollinationProcess of transferring the pollen from the anther to the stigma, a process accomplished by the use of wind, water, insects, birds, bats, or other means.  Usually followed by fertilization, in which sperm are released from the pollen grain to unite with the egg cell
PolylecticWhen referring to bees, those which collect pollen from a wide range of flowering plants
PolymorphismThe occurrence of different forms among the members of a population or colony, or in the life cycle of an individual organism
PolyporeA group of fungi that form fruiting bodies with pores or tubes on the underside, also called bracket fungi or “conks”
PolychromaMany colours
PolyphagousFeeding on many different kinds of food
PostdiscalBetween the discal and marginal areas of a butterfly or moths wing
PosteriorNearer the back, to the rear of the body, nearer the tail.  See also anterior
PraecoxFlowers early in the year
PratenseGrowing in or of meadows or fields
PrecociousIn plants - flowering before the leaves emerge
ProboscisExtendable “beak” of an insect, used to probe and obtain food
Procumbenta plant or stem growing along the ground that does not root
ProgenesisPrecocious sexual maturity in an organism still in its larval or other immature stage
Prokaryotic, prokaryoteOrganisms whose cells lack a cell nucleus
PronotumIn Bugs, the rear part of the head, next to the abdomen.  The upper surface of the first segment of the thorax.  Shape of the pronotum is often important in identification of beetles, and many other groups
PropagationThe process of creating new plants from a variety of sources: seeds, cuttings, bulbs, rootstock and suckers
Prostrate, procumbaLays flat on the ground, growing closely along the ground
proteinProteins are molecules consisting of amino acids that perform functions within organisms
PruinoseHaving a very fine whitish powder on a surface
PterostigmaA cell in the leading edge of the outer wing of insects which is often thickened or coloured. Particularly noticeable in dragonflies, but present in other insect groups
PuberulentWith soft short fine hairs.  Slightly pubescent
PubescentWith soft short hairs
PulmonatesAre an informal group of snails and slugs characterized by the ability to breathe air
PumilaSmall or dwarf
PungensSharp pointed
Pupae, pupate, pupalThe third stage in the life stage of some insects undergoing complete metamorphosis.  There are four stages – embryo, larva, pupa and imago
PustuleA small swelling of a leaf surface containing purulent material usually consisting of necrotic inflammatory cells
PycnoxylicWood in which there is little or no parenchyma tissue among the xylem is called pycnoxylic.  Conifers and flowering plants have pycnoxylic wood.  Contrast with mannoxylic
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QuercifoliaShaped like oak leaves
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RacemesA type of inflorescence
RachisA stem of a plant, especially grass bearing flower stalks at short intervals
RadicansWith rooting stems or aerial roots that grow along stems
RadicleThe first embryonic root of a seedling, which becomes its first primary root
RadiospermicHaving seeds which are round or ovoid.  Contrast with platyspermic
RadulaAn anatomical structure in mollusks used for feeding. It is a minutely toothed, chitinous ribbon, typically used for scraping or cutting food before the food enters the esophagus
RecurvedCurved downwards or backwards can refer to either leaves or petals
RelictualA population that occurs in a restricted area, but whose original range was far wider during a previous geologic time.  A species that is the sole surviving representative of a previously diverse group
RemontantA plant which bloom twice in one season
ReptansCreeping or low
ResupinateFlowers that grow inverted or upside down (like most orchids)
ReticulateWebbed or netted, usually refers to leaves that have a pronounced network of veins
RhizineHair like growths that anchor a thallus to its substrate
RhizomeA horizontal underground stem, such as found in many ferns, where only the leaves may stick up into the air
RhizomorphsA fungal underground stem or root system made up of a bundle of thread like filaments or hyphae
RiparianVegetated areas on the sides of streams and rivers.  They serve several functions, including purifying water by removing sediments, reducing the risk of flooding, reducing erosion, supporting a diversity of plant and wildlife species, maintaining a habitat
RivGrowing by streams
Root, rootstockUsually below ground, the portion of a plant which attaches it to the ground or to a support, they convey water and nourishment to the rest of the plant
RoseaRose coloured
RosetteA series of whorls of leaves or leaf–like structure produced at the base of the stem, just above the ground
RubraRed coloured, ruddy, painted red
RuderalGrowing in rubbish, poor land, or waste ground
Rugose, Rugosa (Rugulose)Wrinkled, corrugated, ridged.  Rugulose – finely wrinkled
RupestrisGrowing on rocks
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SalicifoliusLeaves shaped like willow leaves
SamaraType of fruit often seen on trees in which a flattened wing of fibrous, papery tissue develops from the ovary wall, commonly called a “Key”.  Colloquially known as “helicopters” or “propellers”
SanguineaBlood red
Saprophyte, Saprobic, SaprotrophicA plant that feeds on dead or decayed matter, saprophytes do not have chlorophyll, E.g fungi
SaponinsA class of chemical compounds which produce a soap like foam in aqueous solutions
SarmentosaProducing runners
SativusCultivated, a cultivated variety
SaxatilisGrowing on rocks
ScabrousHaving or covered with scales or small projections and rough to the touch
ScaleThin, membrane like covering of a bud or twig base, or a fine grainy surface material on bark, a leaf, or a twig
ScapeTypically a long leafless flowering stem rising directly from a bulb, rhizome, or similar subterranean or underwater structure
ScopulorumFound in rocky areas or cliffs
ScutellumShield like bony plate or scale, on the thorax of some insects, can form a triangular plate between the top of the elytra
Secondary growthPlant growth which does not occur at the tips of the stems or roots, produces wood and bark in seed plants
Sedentaryinactive, involving little or no physical activity
Seed, seedlingA structure that develops following fertilization of an ovule
SegmentsSubdivision of an animals body or appendage
SempervirensEvergreen, stays green all year long
SepalOne of the outermost circle of modified leaves surrounding the reproductive organs of a flower, usually green.  See also Tepal
Serrulate, serratedHaving very small saw like projections on the margin.  See dentate, and crenate and toothed
SessileWithout a stalk
Seta, SetaeDerived from the Latin word for “bristle”, referring to a number of different bristle or hair like structures
SetosaDensely hairy
SheathThe lower part of the leaf that wraps around the stem, usually in grasses
ShootUsually the above ground portion of a plant, bearing the leaves
ShrubWoody plant of one or more equally strong stems to a maximum height of about 5m (16 feet)
SiliqueA seed capsule formed of two fused carpels, with a length of more than three times the width.  Common in Brassicaceae (mustard family).  On maturing the seedpod splits into its compartments or valves.  See also Legume
SiphunculiPaired protruding organs near the end of the abdomen of Aphidoidea insects through which a sugary secretion (Honey Dew) is extruded
SinuateIn Mycology, having wavy indentation on its border or edge, attachment of the gills to the stipe
SorediaIn Lichens a small specialised outgrowth of of a lichen containing a loose aggregation of algal cells surrounded by a few fungal filaments which then detaches to be distributed by the breeze or animals to a new location
SoriA spore bearing cluster in ferns, fungi and lichens
SpadixA type of spike inflorescence having small flowers borne on a fleshy stem
SpatheA large bract that forms a sheath to enclose the flower cluster of certain plants such as palms and arums
SpeciesPopulations whose individuals freely breed with one another and vary only slightly from one another
Speciosa, spectabilisShowy
SpermatophyteA seed plant
SpicataSpiked, flowers which occur in spike
SpikesA type of inflorescence or cluster of fruits with a narrow, finger like shape.  The individual flowers or fruits either do not have separate stalks, or very short ones
SpinosaSpiny or deeply divided leaves
SpiracleRespiratory openings on the surface of some animals, caterpillars, and larvae
SporeIn plants, a reproductive cell that is capable of developing into a multicellular adult without fusion with another cell, usually formed as the products of meiosis
Spore PrintPrint of a mushrooms spores, these vary widely in colour and are made by placing a mushroom cap on a piece of paper
SportPart of a woody plant that shows morphological differences from the rest of the plant. Often propagated to derive new cultivars
SquamataScaly, usually referring to the bark of trees
StagnalisGrowing in still water
Stamenmale reproductive organ of a flower composed of an anther, where pollen is produced, and filament which supports the anther
StellateArranged in a star like radiating pattern
StemMain axis of plant growth above ground, bearing the buds, leaves, and flowers
StigmaThe sticky tip of a flower pistil which receives pollen during fertilisation.  Coloured markings, E.g. spots or stripes on butterfly and moth wings
StipeMycology – the stem or stalk–like feature supporting the cap of a mushroom
Botany – a stalk that supports some other structure, the meaning differs within taxonomic groups
StipuleAn appendage at the base of petioles or leaves, usually somewhat resembling a small leaf in texture and appearance
StolonA specialised type of horizontal shoot growing from an axillary bud near the base of the plant.  Often called runners, they root from nodes on their length forming new plants.  Plants connected by stolons form a single genetic individual
StoloniferaSpreading by stolons
StomataOpenings in the epidermis of a stem or leaf which permits gas exchange with the air
StratifySeeds subjected to a period of cold, moist treatment to aid germination
Striate, striatedMarked with slender longitudinal grooves or stripes
StrictusErect or upright
StridulationStridulation is the act of producing sound by rubbing together certain body parts, mostly associated with insects
Strobilus, strobiliA tightly clustered group of sporophylls (spore–bearing structures) arranged on a central stalk, commonly termed a “cone” or “flower
StyleThe narrow stalk of the pistil, located above the ovary but below the stigma
SuaveolensSweetly scented
SubapicalThe next inner wingtip area of a Butterfly or moth.  See Apical
SuckerPlant growth that develops from the rootstock of a plant, it does not originate from a seed but grows from the base or the rootstock of the plant at a distance away from the plant
SylvestrisOf the woods, woodland species
SymbiosisIs a close long–term interaction between two or more different biological species, usually providing some form of benefit for those species
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TadpoleThe larval stage in the life cycle of an amphibian.  Most tadpoles are fully aquatic, though some species of amphibians have tadpoles that are terrestrial.  Tadpoles have some features that are more associated with fish and may not be found in the adult such as a lateral line, gills, and tails
TardifloraLate flowering
Tarsus, tarsiEnd part of an insects leg beyond the tibia.  The distal part of the leg of an insect, usually subdivided in the adult into two to five segments
TectoraGrowing on roofs
TendrilClasping, twining, slender outgrowth of a vine's stem used to grasp other plants or supporting structures to enable the plant to climb
TeneralAn insect that has recently moulted and where its exoskeleton is yet to harden and develop its full colouration
TenuiSlender or thin
TepalWhen the sepals and petals of a flower are indistinguishable.  See also Sepal
TerrestrialOn or relating to the earth, of or on dry land
TergiteThe hardened dorsal abdominal plate of an insect
TerminalGrowing at the end of a stem or branch
TermenIn moths the outer edge of the wing between the tip and the trailing corner
TetraploidA plant with twice the normal number of chromosomes can be larger or have more blooms than normal plants.  See also Diploid
ThalloidPlants which have no roots, stems, or leaves, E.g. Liverworts and Hornworts
ThallusThe non–vascular plant body of algae, fungi, and other lower organisms showing no clear distinction of roots, stem, or leaves
ThornSharp, woody outgrowth of the stem
ThoraxA division of an animals body that lies between the head and the abdomen
TilthRefers to the texture of a soil which is fine and crumbly due to tilling and the addition of organic material
TinctoriaUsed for dye
Tomemtosa, tomentumHairy, a dense matted layer of tiny hairs
ToothedGeneric term to include serrulate, dentate, and crenate, describing different types of indentations or cuts to the edge of a surface E.g. leaves
Tornal, tornusThe posterior corner of the wing
TranspirationThe process of water movement through a plant and its evaporation from its parts, such as leaves but also from stems and flowers
TreeWoody plant, usually with a single trunk or stem, which generally grows more than 6m (20 feet) tall.  Any tall plant including many conifers and flowering plants
TrichomeFine outgrowths or appendages on plants with diverse structures and functions.  Examples are hairs, scales, and papillae
TrifidSplit into three parts.  See also Bifid
TrifoliateTrifoliolate or ternate leaves are a leaf shape characterised as divided into three leaflets
TripinnateFrom pinnate, an arrangement of feather–like or divided features arising from both sides of a common axis, in this case sub–divided three times.  
TrunkThe main stem of a tree
TuberAn underground stem which has been modified for storage of nutrients
Tubercle, tuberculeAn enlarged modified specialized leaf base or petiole.  A small rounded protuberance on the body of caterpillars
TuberosaTuberous or rhizomatous roots
TunicThe loose covering over a bulb or corm
Turgor pressureForce exerted outward on a cell wall by the water contained in the cell, gives the plant rigidity, and may help to keep it erect
TurionA specialised over–wintering bud produced by aquatic plants
TwigEnd subdivision of a branch
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UmbellataFlowers that appear in umbels
UmbelsA type of inflorescence usually flat topped without an obvious central axis, an umbel is really a shortened raceme
UmbilicusA depression or hole at the centre of the shell of gastropods and molluscs
Umbo, umbonateThe raised area in the center of a mushroom cap.  Ranging from sharply pointed (acute), rounded (broadly umbonate), elongate (cuspidate), sharply delineated but not elongated (mammilate or papillate)
UnivoltineA term often applied to insects referring to organisms having one brood or generation per year. See also Bivoltine
UvariaFlowers like a bunch of grapes
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ValveA portion of an organ that fragments or splits open.  The portions of a pericarp in a split (dehisced) capsule or pod when ripe.  See also
VariegatedA plant, animal, or fungi which has two or more colours in patches or stripes
VascularRefers to the xylem and phloem tissues, which conduct water and nutrients through the plant body
Vegetative growthGrowth of a plant by division of cells, without sexual reproduction
VeinBranch of the sap–conducting tissue of a leaf, petal, scale, bract, seed coat, etc
VenationThe pattern of veins on a leaf, a flower, or insects wing
VernalisBlooms or grows in the spring
VernalizationThe need for a plant to undergo a chilling period in order for them to form buds or start new growth
VerruculosaWarty appearance
VertebrateHaving an internal skeleton.  See also exoskeleton and invertebrate
VestigialDegenerate, rudimentary or atrophied parts of the body, having become functionless through evolution
VillosusCovered in soft hair
VineA climbing plant which climbs by using tendrils or suckers.  See also Bine
VirgatusTwiggy looking or wand like
VitaminAn organic compound and an essential nutrient that an organism requires in limited amounts for normal growth and health
ViviparousGiving birth to live young
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WhorlsA type of inflorescence or arrangement of three or more leaves (or other organs) arranged in a circle from one point on a shoot or stem, rather like the spokes of a wheel
WoodA secondary tissue found in seed plants which consists largely of xylem tissue
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XylemWater conducting tissue of vascular plants
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ZoophagousInsects that feed on other animals
ZygomorphicCapable of being cut in one plane so that the two halves are mirror images

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